The Application of the Multilevel Paradigm in Human Resource Management–Outcomes Research: Taking Stock and Going Forward

Aguinis, H., Boyd, B., Pierce, C., Short, J. 2011. Walking new avenues in management research methods and theories: Bridging micro and macro domains. Journal of Management, 37: 395403. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
*Allen, M., Ericksen, J., Collins, C. J. 2013. HRM, employee exchange relationships, and performance in small businesses. Human Resource Management, 52: 153174. Google Scholar, Crossref
Arthur, J. B. 1994. Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37: 670687. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Aryee, S., Walumbwa, F., Seidu, E., Otaye, L. 2012. Impact of HPWS on individual- and branch-level performance: Test of a multilevel model of intermediate linkages. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97: 287300. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
*Aryee, S., Walumbwa, F., Seidu, E., Otaye, L. 2016. Developing and leveraging human capital resource to promote service quality: Testing a theory of performance. Journal of Management, 42: 480499. Google Scholar
Bal, P. M., Kooij, D., De Jong, S. B. 2013. How do developmental and accommodative HRM enhance employee engagement and commitment? The role of psychological contract and SOC strategies. Journal of Management Studies, 50: 545572. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Baluch, A. M., Salge, T. O., Piening, E. P. 2013. Untangling the relationship between HRM and hospital performance: The mediating role of attitudinal and behavioural HR outcomes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24: 30383061. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Barrick, M. R., Thurgood, G. R., Smith, T. A., Courtright, S. H. 2015. Collective organizational engagement: Linking motivational antecedents, strategic implementation, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 58: 111135. Google Scholar, Crossref
Barsade, S., Ward, A., Turner, J., Sonnenfeld, J. 2000. To your heart’s content: A model of affective diversity in top management teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45: 802836. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
Becker, B. E., Huselid, M. A. 1998. High performance work systems and firm performance: A synthesis of research and managerial implications. In Rowlands, K. M., Ferris, G. R. (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resource management, vol. 16: 53101. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Google Scholar
Bliese, P. D. 2000. Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In Klein, K. J., Kozlowski, S. W. J. (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions: 349381. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., Boon, C. 2005. Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research. Human Resource Management Journal, 15(3): 6794. Google Scholar, Crossref
Boxall, P., Purcell, P. 2008. Strategy and HRM. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
Bowen, D. E., Ostroff, C. 2004. Understanding HRM–firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review, 29: 203221. Google Scholar, ISI
Buller, P. F., McEvoy, G. M. 2012. Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human Resource Management Review, 22: 4356. Google Scholar, Crossref
Bullock, J. G., Green, D. P., Ha, S. E. 2010. Yes, but what’s the mechanism? (don’t expect an easy answer). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98: 550558. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
Burke, M. J., Finkelstein, L. M., Dusig, M. S. 1999. On average deviation indices for estimating interrater agreement. Organizational Research Methods, 2: 4968. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
Chadwick, C. 2010. Theoretic insights on the nature of performance synergies in human resource systems: Toward greater precision. Human Resource Management Review, 20: 85101. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Chan, D. 1998. Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83: 234246. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Chang, P. C., Chen, S. J. 2011. Crossing the level of employee’s performance: HPWS, affective commitment, human capital, and employee job performance in professional service organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22: 883901. Google Scholar, Crossref
Chang, S., Jia, L., Takeuchi, R., Cai, Y. 2014. Do high-commitment work systems affect creativity? A multilevel combinational approach to employee creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99: 665680. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
Chen, G., Bliese, P. D., Mathieu, J. E. 2005. Conceptual framework and statistical procedures for delineating and testing multilevel theories of homology. Organizational Research Methods, 8: 375409. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
Chen, G., Mathieu, J., Bliese, P. 2005. A framework for conducting multi-level construct validation. In Yammarino, F., Dansereau, F. (Eds.), Multi-level issues in organizational behavior and processes, vol. 3: 273303. Bingley, England: Emerald Group. Google Scholar
*Chuang, C. H., Liao, H. 2010. SHRM in service context: Taking care of business by taking care of employees and customers. Personnel Psychology, 63: 153196. Google Scholar, Crossref
Coleman, J. 1990. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
*Collins, C., Smith, K. 2006. Knowledge exchange and combination: The role of HR practices in the performance of high-technology firms. Academy of Management Journal, 49: 544560. Google Scholar, Crossref
Combs, J., Liu, Y., Hall, A., Ketchen, D. 2006. How much do high-performance work practices matter? A meta-analysis of their effects on organizational performance. Personnel Psychology, 59: 501528. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Croon, M. A., van Veldhoven, M., Peccei, R., Wood, S. J. 2014. Researching individual well-being and performance in context: Multilevel mediational analysis for bathtub models. In van Veldhoven, M., Peccei, R. (Eds.), Well-being and performance at work: The role of context: 129154. Hove, England: Psychology Press. Google Scholar
Dansereau, F., Yammarino, F. J. 2000. Within and between analysis: The variant paradigm as an underlying approach to theory building and testing. In Klein, K. J., Kozlowski, S. W. J. (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions: 425466. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
Delery, J. E. 1998. Issues of fit in strategic human resource management: Implications for research. Human Resource Management Review, 8: 289309. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Delery, J. E., Doty, D. H. 1996. Modes of theorizing in SHRM: Tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 802835. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Dello Russo, S., Mascia, D., Morandi, F. in press. Individual perceptions of HR practices, HRM strength and appropriateness of care: A meso, multilevel approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1165276 Google Scholar, Crossref
*Den Hartog, D., Boon, C., Verburg, R., Croon, M. 2013. HRM, communication, satisfaction, and perceived performance: A cross-level test. Journal of Management, 39: 16371665. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
Dyer, N. G., Hanges, P. J., Hall, R. J. 2005. Applying multilevel confirmatory factor analysis techniques to the study of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16: 149167. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Elorza, U., Aritzeta, A., Ayestarán, S. 2011. Exploring the black box in Spanish firms: The effect of the actual and perceived system on employees’ commitment and organizational performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22: 14011422. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Elorza, U., Harris, C., Aritzeta, A., Balluerka, N. 2016. The effect of management and employee perspectives of high-performance work systems on employees’ discretionary behaviour. Personnel Review, 45: 121141. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Flinchbaugh, C., Li, P., Luth, M. T., Chadwick, C. 2016. Team-level high involvement work practices: Investigating the role of knowledge sharing and perspective taking. Human Resource Management Journal, 26(2): 134150. Google Scholar, Crossref
Fulmer, C. A., Ostroff, C. 2016. Convergence and emergence in organizations: An integrative framework and review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37: S122S145. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Gardner, T. M., Wright, P. M., Moynihan, L. M. 2011. The impact of motivation, empowerment, and skill-enhancing practices on aggregate voluntary turnover: The mediating effect of collective affective commitment. Personnel Psychology, 64: 315350. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Gelade, G. A., Ivery, M. 2003. The impact of human resource management and work climate on organizational performance. Personnel Psychology, 56: 383404. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Gerhart, B. 2013. Research on human resources and effectiveness: Some methodological challenges. In Paauwe, J., Guest, D., Wright, P. M. (Eds.), HRM and performance: Achievements and challenges: 149172. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar
Godard, J. 2001. Beyond the high-performance paradigm? An analysis of variation in Canadian managerial perceptions of reform programme effectiveness. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 39: 2552. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Gong, Y., Law, K. S., Chang, S., Xin, K. R. 2009. HRM and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 263275. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
Guest, D. 1999. HRM—The workers’ verdict. Human Resource Management Journal, 9(3): 525. Google Scholar, Crossref
Guest, D. 2011. Human resource management and performance: Still searching for some answers. Human Resource Management Journal, 21(1): 313. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Harrison, D. A., Klein, K. J. 2007. What’s the difference? Diversity constructs as separation, variety, or disparity in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32: 11991228. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Hauff, S., Alewell, D., Hansen, N. K. 2014. HRM systems between control and commitment: Occurrence, characteristics and effects on HRM outcomes and firm performance. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(4): 424441. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Hayes, A. F. 2015. An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50: 122. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
Hitt, M. A., Beamish, P. W., Jackson, S. E., Mathieu, J. E. 2007. Building theoretical and empirical bridges across levels: Multilevel research in management. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 13851399. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Hofmann, D. A. 1997. An overview of the logic and rationale of hierarchical linear models. Journal of Management, 23: 723744. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
Hofmann, D. A., Griffin, M. A., Gavin, M. B. 2000. The application of hierarchical linear modeling to organizational research. In Klein, K. J., Kozlowski, S. W. J. (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions: 467511. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
*Hong, Y., Liao, H., Raub, S., Han, J. H. 2016. What it takes to get proactive: An integrative multilevel model of the antecedents of personal initiative. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101: 687701. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
*Huang, L. C., Ahlstrom, D., Lee, A. Y. P., Chen, S. Y., Hsieh, M. J. 2016. HPWS, employee well-being, and job involvement: An empirical study. Personnel Review, 45: 296314. Google Scholar, Crossref
Huselid, M. A. 1995. The impact of HRM practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 635672. Google Scholar, Crossref
Huselid, M. A., Becker, B. E. 2011. Bridging micro and macro domains: Workforce differentiation and SHRM. Journal of Management, 37: 421428. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
Jackson, S. E., Schuler, R. S., Jiang, K. 2014. An aspirational framework for strategic human resource management. The Academy of Management Annals, 8: 156. Google Scholar, Crossref
James, L. R., Demaree, R. G., Wolf, G. 1984. Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without response bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69: 8598. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Jensen, J. M., Patel, P. C., Messersmith, J. G. 2013. HPWS and job control: Consequences for anxiety, role overload, and turnover intentions. Journal of Management, 39: 16991724. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
Jensen, J. M., Van De Voorde, K. 2016. Reconciling the dark side of HPWS. In Ashkanasy, N. M., Bennett, R. J., Martinko, M. J. (Eds.), Understanding the high performance workplace: The line between motivation and abuse: 85102. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar
*Jiang, J., Wang, S., Zhao, S. 2012. Does HRM facilitate employee creativity and organizational innovation? A study of Chinese firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23: 40254047. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Jiang, K., Chuang, C. H., Chiao, Y. C. 2015. Developing collective customer knowledge and service climate: The interaction between service-oriented high-performance work systems and service leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100: 10891106. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., Baer, J. C. 2012. How does HRM influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of Management Journal, 55: 12641294. Google Scholar, Crossref
Jiang, K., Takeuchi, R., Lepak, D. 2013. Where do we go from here? New perspectives on the black box in SHRM research. Journal of Management Studies, 50: 14481480. Google Scholar
*Katou, A. A., Budhwar, P. S., Patel, C. 2014. Content vs. process in the HRM-performance relationship: An empirical examination. Human Resource Management, 53: 527544. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Kehoe, R. R., Wright, P. M. 2013. The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Management, 39: 366391. Google Scholar
Kozlowski, S. W. J., Chao, G. T., Grand, J. A., Braum, M. T., Kuljanin, G. 2013. Advancing multilevel research design: Capturing the dynamics of emergence. Organizational Research Methods, 6: 581615. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
Kozlowski, S. W., Klein, K. J. 2000. A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In Klein, K. J., Kozlowski, S. W. J. (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions: 390. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
Kreft, I. G., de Leeuw, J. 1998. Introducing multilevel modeling. London: Sage. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Kroon, B., Van, De, Voorde, K., Van Veldhoven, M. 2009. Cross-level effects of high-performance work practices on burnout: Two counteracting mediating mechanisms compared. Personnel Review, 38: 509525. Google Scholar, Crossref
Kuhn, T. S. 1962. The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
Lengnick-Hall, M. L., Lengnick-Hall, C. A., Andrade, L. S., Drake, B. 2009. SHRM: The evolution of the field. Human Resource Management Review, 19: 6485. Google Scholar, Crossref
Lepak, D., Boswell, W. 2012. Strategic HRM and employee organizational relationship (EOR). In Shore, L. M., Coyle-Shapiro, J. A.-M., Tetrick, L. E. (Eds.), Essays in employee-organization relationships: Applications for the 21st century: 455483. New York: Psychology Press. Google Scholar
Lepak, D. P., Jiang, K., Han, K., Castellano, W. G., Hu, J. 2012. Strategic HRM moving forward: What can we learn from micro perspectives? In Hodgkinson, G. P., Ford, J. K. (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, vol. 27: 231259. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. Google Scholar
Lepak, D. P., Snell, S. A. 2002. Examining the HR architecture: The relationships among human capital, employment, and HR configurations. Journal of Management, 28: 517543. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
*Li, X., Frenkel, S. in press. Where hukou status matters: Analyzing the linkage between supervisor perceptions of HR practices and employee work engagement. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1137613 Google Scholar, Crossref
*Liao, H., Chuang, A. 2004. A multilevel investigation of factors influencing employee service performance and customer outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 47: 4158. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Liao, H., Toya, K., Lepak, D. P., Hong, Y. 2009. Do they see eye to eye? Management and employee perspectives of HPWS and influence processes on service quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 371391. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
Mathieu, J. E., Chen, G. 2010. The etiology of the multilevel paradigm in management research. Journal of Management, 37: 610641. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
Mathieu, J. E., Taylor, S. R. 2007. A framework for testing meso-mediational relationships in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28: 141172. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Messersmith, J., Patel, P., Lepak, D., Gould-Williams, J. 2011. Unlocking the black box: Exploring the link between HPWS and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 11051118. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
Molloy, J., Ployhart, R., Wright, P. 2011. The myth of “the” micro-macro divide: Bridging disciplinary and system-level divides. Journal of Management, 37: 581609. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
Muthén, L. K. 2007. Mplus: Statistical analysis with latent variables (Version 4.21) [Computer software]. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén. Google Scholar
Nishii, L. H., Lepak, D. P., Schneider, B. 2008. Employee attributions of the “why” of HR practices: Their effects on employee attitudes and behaviors, and customer satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 61: 503545. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Ogbonnaya, C., Valizade, D. in press. High performance work practices, employee outcomes and organizational performance: A 2-1-2 multilevel mediation analysis. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1146320 Google Scholar, Crossref
*Oppenauer, V., Van De Voorde, K. in press. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion: A multi-level study. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1146321 Google Scholar, Crossref
*Orlitzky, M., Frenkel, S. J. 2005. Alternative pathways to high-performance workplaces. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16: 13251348. Google Scholar, Crossref
Ostroff, C., Bowen, D. E. 2000. Moving HR to a higher level: HR practices and organizational effectiveness. In Klein, K. J., Kozlowski, S. W. J. (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: 211266. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
Patel, P., Messersmith, J., Lepak, D. 2013. Walking the tightrope: An assessment of the relationship between HPWS and organizational ambidexterity. Academy of Management Journal, 56: 14201442. Google Scholar, Crossref
Peccei, R. 2004. Human resource management and the search for the happy workplace [Inaugural address]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Google Scholar
Peccei, R., Van De Voorde, K. 2014. Human resource management and performance. In Guest, D. E., Needle, D. (Eds.), Wiley encyclopedia of management: Vol. 5—Human resource management (3rd ed.). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. Google Scholar
Peccei, R., Van, De, Voorde, K., Van Veldhoven, M. 2013. HRM, well-being and performance: A theoretical and empirical review. In Paauwe, J., Guest, D., Wright, P. (Eds.), HRM & performance: Achievements and challenges: 1546. Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar
Pfeffer, J. 1998. The human equation: Building profits by putting people first. Boston: Harvard Business Press. Google Scholar
*Piening, E. P., Baluch, A. M., Salge, T. O. 2013. The relationship between employees’ perceptions of human resource systems and organizational performance: Examining mediating mechanisms and temporal dynamics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98: 926947. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., Hayes, A. F. 2007. Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42: 185227. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
Preacher, K. J., Zyphur, M. J., Zhang, Z. 2010. A general multilevel SEM framework for assessing multilevel mediation. Psychological Methods, 15: 209233. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
*Raineri, A. in press. Linking human resources practices with performance: The simultaneous mediation of collective affective commitment and human capital. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1155163 Google Scholar, Crossref
Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S. 2002. Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
Salancik, G. R., Pfeffer, J. 1978. A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23: 224253. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
Schneider, B. 1987. The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40: 437453. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
Shen, J. in press. Principles and applications of multilevel modeling in HRM research. Human Resource Management. doi:10.1002/hrm.21666 Google Scholar, Crossref
*Shen, J., Benson, J., Huang, B. 2014. HPWS and teachers’ work performance: The mediating role of quality of working life. Human Resource Management, 53: 817833. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Shin, S. J., Jeong, I., Bae, J. in press. Do high-involvement HRM practices matter for worker creativity? A cross-level approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1137612 Google Scholar, Crossref
*Snape, E., Redman, T. 2010. HRM practices, organizational citizenship behaviour, and performance: A multi-level analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 47: 12191247. Google Scholar
Snijders, T., Bosker, R. 1999. Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. London: Sage. Google Scholar
Subramony, M. 2009. A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between HRM bundles and firm performance. Human Resource Management, 48: 745768. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Takeuchi, R., Chen, G., Lepak, D. P. 2009. Through the looking glass of a social system: Cross-level effects of HPWS on employees’ attitudes. Personnel Psychology, 62: 129. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Takeuchi, R., Lepak, D. P., Wang, H., Takeuchi, K. 2007. An empirical examination of the mechanisms mediating between high-performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 10691083. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI
Tay, L., Woo, S. E., Vermunt, J. K. 2014. A conceptual and methodological framework for psychometric isomorphism validation of multilevel construct measures. Organizational Research Methods, 17: 77106. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
Toh, S. M., Morgeson, F. P., Campion, M. A. 2008. HR configurations: Investigating fit with the organizational context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 864882. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline
*Van De Voorde, K., Beijer, S. 2015. The role of employee HR attributions in the relationship between HPWS and employee outcomes. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(1): 6278. Google Scholar, Crossref
Van De Voorde, K., Paauwe, J., Van Veldhoven, M. 2012. Employee well-being and the HRM–organizational performance relationship: A review of quantitative studies. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14: 391407. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Van De Voorde, K., Veld, M., Van Veldhoven, M. 2016. Connecting empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity to work engagement: The mediating role of job demands and resources. Human Resource Management Journal, 26(2): 192210. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Veld, M., Paauwe, J., Boselie, P. 2010. HRM and strategic climates in hospitals: Does the message come across at the ward level? Human Resource Management Journal, 20(4): 339356. Google Scholar, Crossref
*Vermeeren, B. 2014. Variability in HRM implementation among line managers and its effect on performance: A 2-1-2 mediational multilevel approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25: 30393059. Google Scholar, Crossref
Wall, T. D., Wood, S. J. 2005. The romance of human resource management and business performance, and the case for big science. Human Relations, 58: 429462. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
Wallace, J. C., Edwards, B. D., Paul, J., Burke, M., Christian, M., Eissa, G. 2016. Change the referent? A meta-analytic investigation of direct and referent-shift consensus models for organizational climate. Journal of Management, 42: 838861. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
Wei, L. Q., Lau, C. M. 2010. High performance work systems and performance: The role of adaptive capability. Human Relations, 10: 14871511. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
*Wei, Y. C., Han, T. S., Hsu, I. C. 2010. High-performance HR practices and OCB: A cross-level investigation of a causal path. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21: 16311648. Google Scholar, Crossref
Whitman, D., Van Rooy, D., Viswesvaran, C. 2010. Satisfaction, citizenship behaviors, and performance in work units: A meta-analysis of collective construct relations. Personnel Psychology, 63: 4181. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Wood, S., Van Veldhoven, M., Croon, M., de Menezes, L. M. 2012. Enriched job design, high involvement management and organizational performance: The mediating roles of job satisfaction and well-being. Human Relations, 65: 419445. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals
Wright, P., Boswell, W. 2002. Desegregating HRM: A review and synthesis of micro and macro human resource management research. Journal of Management, 28: 247276. Google Scholar, SAGE Journals, ISI
Wright, P., Gardner, T. 2003. The HR-firm performance relationship: Methodological and theoretical challenges. In Sparrow, P., Howard, A. (Eds.), The new workplace: A guide to the human impact of modern working practices: 311328. Chichester, England: Wiley. Google Scholar
*Wright, P., Gardner, T., Moynihan, L. 2003. The impact of HR practices on the performance of business units. Human Resource Management Journal, 13(3): 2136. Google Scholar, Crossref
Wright, P., Gardner, T., Moynihan, L., Allen, M. 2005. The relationship between HR practices and firm performance: Examining causal order. Personnel Psychology, 58: 409446. Google Scholar, Crossref, ISI
*Wu, P. C., Chaturvedi, S. 2009. The role of procedural justice and power distance in the relationship between high-performance work systems and employee attitudes: A multilevel perspective. Journal of Management, 35: 12281247. Google Scholar
*Zhong, L., Wayne, S. J., Liden, R. C. 2016. Job engagement, perceived organizational support, high-performance HR practices, and cultural value orientations: A cross-level investigation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37: 823844. Google Scholar, Crossref

Source link

Telefono: 081 18676363
Fax: 081 18676362
80133, Napoli, Italy
Piazza Bovio 33